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What is surgery?

Surgery or a surgical procedure (operation) is medical treatment in which instruments are used to remove or repair a damaged or diseased part of the body. Operations often involve the surgeon making an incision (cut), suturing (stitching) or physically manipulating parts of the body. They can involve fixing or grafting, removing, tying (ligating) or merely examining structures within the body, depending on the purpose of the operation.

During surgery the patient will need either local or general anaesthetic, ventilation (using a ventilator machine to help them breathe whilst under general anaesthetic). They may need support with managing their blood flow (perfusion) if the operation is on their heart.  They also need careful monitoring of important indicators of their general condition, such as their heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen levels. These supportive measures keep them safe whilst the operation takes place.

Medication may be needed before, during or after the procedure, for example, to protect the patient from infection or to prevent blood clots (thrombosis) if they are known to be at risk. Scans may be used before or during the procedure to help locate the part needing surgery and protect the surrounding area.

Whilst surgery is often needed to help treat or investigate illness in a patient who is already ill, surgical patients are entitled to:

  • clear and thorough personalised information about the operation, its risks and its benefits;
  • safe and effective anaesthetic;
  • safe surgical technique;
  • appropriate management of their health before, during and after the operation;
  • appropriate management of complications.

Where a patient is harmed by negligent handling of the diagnosis and consent processes, or their anaesthetic, surgical or surrounding healthcare management, they may be entitled to claim compensation.

Our experienced medical negligence solicitors have helped seriously injured clients recover compensation following negligent NHS and private surgical care for over 30 years.

Previous Cases

Settlement of £1.5 million lump sum plus life-long, annual payments of £225,000pa for a man who suffered a spinal cord injury (SCI) which left him paralysed (tetraplegia) when he fell from the hospital chair where he was left to sleep after an unnecessary spinal surgery.

£900,000 settlement, in a claim against a vascular consultant, for a man who suffered a thrombosis and below-knee amputation as a result of negligent delay in surgically treating a popliteal aneurysm.

£750,000 settlement for a woman after negligent hospital treatment of post-operative sepsis and necrotising fasciitis resulted in amputations of her left hand, the fingers and thumb of the right hand, the toes of her left foot, and her right leg below the knee. She also suffered a psychological injury.

£550,000 settlement for a woman who was left with permanent injuries including back pain, a shortened leg, weakened hip, ongoing pain and impaired mobility as a result of negligent hip and knee replacement surgery.

Substantial settlement for a client who was left blind in one eye after negligent lens implant surgery, which was carried out without our client’s informed consent, and negligent follow up care.

£500,000 settlement for a woman who suffered bowel injuries, infection and septicaemia, leaving her with a permanent colostomy, as a result of negligent surgery to remove an ovarian cyst.

£450,000 settlement for a man who needed a below-knee amputation when he developed a thrombosis and ischaemia in his leg as a result of negligent management of his blood thinning medication during surgery.

£290,000 compensation for a man who developed septic shock from faecal peritonitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and an acute renal injury as a result of negligent surgery for rectal cancer. He was left with a permanent colostomy, large incisional hernias, and extensive surgical and skin graft scars.  

£200,000 settlement for the family of a man who died after air was allowed to enter his central line during post-surgical treatment for rectal cancer and bowel obstruction. 

Types of surgery

When a medical condition needs surgical treatment, the urgency, severity and type of injury or condition will affect the way in which the operation is carried out. Each type of surgery has its own benefits and risks to the patient.

  • Day surgery is carried out in one day, without the patient having to stay in hospital.
  • Keyhole surgery is performed through very small incisions in a patient's skin. The surgeon operates using instruments inserted through a tube which has a fibre optic light on the end. Keyhole surgery is often carried out as day surgery.
  • When keyhole surgery takes place in the abdominal area, it may also be known as laparoscopic surgery.
  • Open surgery takes place through a bigger incision (cut) than keyhole surgery. This gives the surgeon more space to operate and to see the area within the body on which he is operating but open procedures need stitching and take longer to heal. The patient may need longer hospital admission.
  • Microsurgery procedures use extremely small instruments and powerful magnifying devices, to operate on tiny structures within the body, such as nerves, the bones in the ear, inside the eye or small arteries.
  • Elective surgery is where the operation is planned in advance.
  • Emergency surgery has not been planned but is needed for medical emergencies where the patient needs immediate admission to hospital. The operation may take place immediately or during the night where the patient has a serious or life-threatening condition but usually takes place within 24 hours.
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What counts as informed consent?

The risks to the patient of surgery and anaesthesia must all be considered and managed carefully and discussed with the patient so that they have enough information to give their consent. When deciding whether to consent to medical treatment, patients must be informed of what the treatment involves, any reasonable alternatives, and ‘all material risks’ of the proposed treatment.

This means that the patient is entitled to be properly informed and make their own decision, even where:

  • there is only a small risk of a poor outcome or side effect;
  • the doctor thinks the risk doesn’t justify refusing treatment.

If the patient would consider the risk to be significant enough to affect their own decision, they are entitled to know about it before giving (or refusing) consent. If this information is withheld, the patient has not given ‘informed consent’. If the patient is then harmed during treatment, they may be entitled to claim compensation for their injury.

If a patient lacks the mental capacity to make their own decisions, consent is often sought from a proxy, such as a parent if the treatment is for a child. In these circumstances, the doctor must act in the patient’s best interests.

The patient’s signature on the consent form alone is not conclusive evidence that informed consent was given. The court will also take into account other evidence of the conversation which took place when the patient was asked to give consent, such as the doctor’s record of the conversation in the medical notes.

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What mistakes can lead to surgical negligence compensation claims?

Where a negligent mistake before, during or after surgery causes serious injury which would have been avoided with correct care, the patient may be entitled to claim compensation for that injury and its consequences.

Surgical negligence claims often arise from:

  • misdiagnosis leading to unnecessary surgery;
  • inadequate pre-operative risk assessment, warnings and consent;
  • delays in operating;
  • negligent care before, during and after the operation;
  • negligent surgical technique;
  • perfusion (blood flow) errors;
  • wrong site surgery;
  • anaesthetic errors, including:
    • incorrect intubation (insertion of the tube for breathing purposes);
    • anaesthetic failure and awareness;
    • anaphylaxis (a severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction).

Our experienced clinical negligence solicitors have recovered substantial damages awards for clients injured by surgical negligence which caused:

  • spinal cord injury;
  • nerve injury;
  • arterial damage leading to amputation;
  • serious injury from unrecognised haematoma (internal bleeding);
  • serious complications of bile duct injury;
  • bowel injury, peritonitis and sepsis;
  • disability from negligent hip and knee replacement surgery;
  • cardiac arrest and/or brain injury from oxygen deprivation, anaesthetic negligence and perfusion errors;
  • sepsis and other severe complications from post-operative infection;
  • complications of aortic aneurysm.
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Meet your team

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Susan Brown


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Julie Marsh


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Richard Money-Kyrle


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Sita Soni

Senior Associate - solicitor

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Vanessa Wand

Senior associate - solicitor

Tara Byrne photo

Tara Byrne

Associate - Solicitor

Rachel Makore headshot

Rachel Makore

Associate - solicitor

Alpa Rana headshot

Alpa Rana

Associate - solicitor

Fran Rothwell

Fran Rothwell

Associate solicitor

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Ben Ireland


Alice Carley headshot

Alice Carley


Audrey Elmore headshot

Audrey Elmore

Medical records coordinator

Nicky Melville headshot

Nicky Melville

Professional support assistant

Susan Brown photo
Julie Marsh headshot
Richard Money-Kyrle headshot
Sita Soni headshot
Vanessa Wand photo
Tara Byrne photo
Rachel Makore headshot
Alpa Rana headshot
Fran Rothwell
Ben Ireland headshot
Alice Carley headshot
Audrey Elmore headshot
Nicky Melville headshot

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Surgery negligence cases

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"Julie Marsh is a first rate litigator"

Julie Marsh is a first rate litigator who adds real value to all her cases. I have always been impressed not just by her expertise as a clinical negligence lawyer but by the way she treats every client as an individual and works on their case as if it is the most important thing in the world, which to many clients it really is.

King's Counsel

"You have given fantastic support and guidance"

Boyes Turner have a great asset in Julie Marsh, she has handled my case with such professionalism and has kept me informed at every stage over the 6 years. She has given me guidance, support and that personal touch where I could ring or email at any time and she would always answer and give me answers to any questions I had. Would recommend without hesitation. Thank you

Boyes Turner Client

"I have been impressed"

Tara Byrne kept me well informed at all stages of my claim. I have been impressed with the way my case was handled, and the time scale within which a settlement was reached.”

Boyes Turner Client

"Very Professional "

Boyes Turner helped me through one of the toughest times in my life. They were very professional whilst remaining friendly. At times the process was emotionally tough but they were very patient with me and went through everything with me until I understood it. I cannot recommend them enough. 

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"We cannot thank Susan and her team at Boyes Turner enough"

Words cannot express how grateful we are to Susan and her team for the level of commitment and dedication shown to our family during a time which would be difficult for anyone. Susan demonstrates a calm professional manner which helped us to feel at ease. Her level of knowledge has proven to be the best in the field and we fully recommend her to anyone seeking to investigate birth injury claims. You can be confident that Susan and her team will scrutinise the medical notes thoroughly and will keep you well informed throughout the process. We are very pleased with the outcome of our child’s case and know that her work has resulted in justice being achieved. Our family will now be able to move forward in the knowledge that the finances are securely in place for our child to receive a suitable care package, purchase equipment and receive necessary lifelong therapy. We cannot thank Susan and her team at Boyes Turner enough.

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