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Vitamin K deficiency bleeding or VKDB is a dangerous but preventable condition which can cause permanent injury to a baby’s brain. In the UK, it is standard maternity practise for babies to be given vitamin K immediately after birth as this is known to prevent VKDB. This means that VKDB brain injury and its devastating consequences are now rare. It also means that unless consent for vitamin K treatment was withheld by the baby’s parents, failure to give vitamin K to a newborn baby is negligent care.

Boyes Turner’s neonatal brain injury lawyers can recover substantial compensation for babies who have suffered VKDB brain injury and disability as a result of negligent maternity care.  Our specialist solicitors have helped countless families of children with cerebral palsy and neurological disability. Each case is handled by experienced solicitors with skill, compassion and care.

Our service to our clients includes:

  • free initial advice from our specialist solicitors;
  • claims handled by solicitors who are top-rated medical negligence specialists by Chambers Directory and the Legal 500;
  • Legal Aid and no-win-no-fee funding options according to what’s best for the child;
  • focussed handling of the claim to secure interim payments whilst the claim is ongoing to relieve financial hardship;
  • Court of Protection deputyship (when needed);
  • SEN advice and support (when needed);
  • top value, court approved settlements which meet the client’s lifelong needs;
  • anonymity orders  (when appropriate).

What is VKDB?

VKDB or vitamin K deficiency bleeding is a bleeding disorder which can affect newborn babies. The condition is sometimes called by its former name, haemorrhagic disease of the newborn or HDN.  It is more commonly known as VKDB because it is caused by a lack of vitamin K.

We need vitamin K in our bodies so that our blood clots normally. This allows wounds to heal and prevents excessive bleeding. Our bodies make some vitamin K from bacteria in our intestines and the rest comes from our diet. Our bodies have a very limited ability to store vitamin K. An adult who is eating a healthy diet usually produces enough vitamin K for their body’s needs.

Babies are born without any vitamin K. In the first few weeks of life their bodies cannot make vitamin K because their intestines do not yet contain the necessary bacteria to produce it. If they bleed, their blood does not have enough vitamin K to form a clot. This puts them at risk of serious injury, particularly severe injury to the brain, from intracranial bleeding.

VKDB may be mild or may only affect non-vital organs. It can also lead to the baby’s death. One third of babies who suffer from VKDB are left with permanent brain damage and long-term disability as a result of  bleeding into their brain.

To prevent babies from suffering this life-threatening condition, it is standard practise in most developed countries to give supplemental vitamin K to all newborn babies. In countries, such as the UK, where vitamin K is given as standard treatment to babies immediately after birth, VKDB is very rare. Sadly, where cases of VKDB occur they may have been caused by negligent failure to give vitamin K, or where the parents of a breast-fed baby have refused to consent to their baby receiving vitamin K treatment.

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Who is at risk from VKDB?

All newborn babies are at risk of serious injury or death from vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in the first few months of life. This is because their bodies cannot make vitamin K as they do not yet have the necessary bacteria in their intestines.

The risk of VKDB is even greater where:

  • the baby was born prematurely (before 37 weeks of pregnancy)
  • the baby was delivered by caesarean section, forceps or Ventouse suction (kiwi)
  • the baby had breathing problems at birth
  • the baby is solely breastfed (and doesn’t receive the vitamin K that is often added to formula milk)
  • the baby’s mother was taking medication during pregnancy
  • the baby is circumcised
  • the baby has liver disease
  • the baby has a condition which affects their ability to absorb nutrients, such as coeliac disease.

These risk factors are in addition to the existing serious risk that all newborn babies have of developing VKDB. One third of babies who develop VKDB had none of the additional risks.

VKDB is easily preventable by standard maternity treatment in which the baby is given vitamin K, usually by a single injection, immediately after birth.

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What kind of bleeding does a baby suffer with VKDB?

A baby with vitamin K deficiency bleeding may bleed uncontrollably because their blood cannot clot properly. Normal blood clotting is necessary to enable wounds to heal.

Bleeding from VKDB (haemorrhagic disease of the newborn) can occur in areas related to treatment or trauma during birth, such as:

  • from fetal scalp monitoring wounds
  • inside the baby’s head after a traumatic delivery
  • within the chest
  • inside the abdomen

The baby may bleed from non-vital organs, such as:

  • gastrointestinal (within the digestive system)
  • from the skin and mucous membranes, (such as the nose or gums)
  • following circumcision
  • from the umbilical stump.

The most severe injury and disability from VKDB comes from intracranial haemorrhage, where the baby suffers permanent injury from bleeding into their brain.

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Can VKDB be prevented?

Yes. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) is totally preventable by giving the baby vitamin K immediately after birth. It is standard treatment for babies to be offered vitamin K by a single injection (or in some cases by a series of oral doses) after birth.

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What kind of mistakes lead to VKDB injury compensation claims?

It is recommended that all newborn babies receive vitamin K within 24 hours of birth. Parents who are considering refusing consent for their baby to receive vitamin K should be fully informed of the benefits of vitamin K and the risk of VKDB and the harm it could do to their baby.

Medical negligence claims for compensation for serious injury from VKDB often arise after:

  • failure to administer vitamin K to a newborn baby
  • delayed or negligent treatment with vitamin K
  • withholding vitamin K treatment for a baby without the parents’ informed consent.
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What injuries can lead to VKDB injury compensation claims?

Boyes Turner can recover compensation for children who have suffered severe injury from VKDB caused by medical negligence, such as:

  • brain injury
  • cerebral palsy
  • neurodevelopmental disability
  • death.
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What compensation can be claimed for a child with VKDB brain injury?

Boyes Turner’s neonatal brain injury lawyers can help families recover substantial compensation after their child has suffered serious brain injury from VKDB following negligent maternity care.  Once liability is established, we secure interim payments to help meet our clients’ urgent needs for care, therapies, suitable or adapted accommodation and specialist equipment and relieve financial hardship. Settlements are carefully structured to ensure that money will be available to meet the child’s lifelong needs arising from their disability.

Depending on the individual client’s needs, compensation may be claimed for:

  • their pain, suffering and disability
  • additional care (professional or from family)
  • case management
  • the increased cost of suitable accommodation or home adaptations
  • therapies, such as:
    • physiotherapy
    • occupational therapy
    • speech and language therapy
    • hydrotherapy
  • private medical treatment
  • specialist equipment and aids
  • assistive technology
  • adapted vehicles, wheelchairs and increased transport costs
  • loss of earnings
  • special educational needs (SEN)
  • Court of Protection deputyship
  • other additional expenses associated with the injury and disability.
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Meet your team

Susan Brown


Richard Money-Kyrle


Julie Marsh

Senior associate - solicitor

Vanessa Wand

Senior associate - solicitor

Rachel Makore

Associate - solicitor

Alpa Rana

Associate - solicitor

Fran Rothwell

Associate solicitor

Sita Soni

Associate - solicitor

Tara Byrne


Ben Ireland


Audrey Elmore

Medical records coordinator

Aimee Gaston

Trainee Solicitor

Nicky Melville

Professional support assistant

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"Very Professional "

Boyes Turner helped me through one of the toughest times in my life. They were very professional whilst remaining friendly. At times the process was emotionally tough but they were very patient with me and went through everything with me until I understood it. I cannot recommend them enough. 

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Words cannot express how grateful we are to Susan and her team for the level of commitment and dedication shown to our family during a time which would be difficult for anyone. Susan demonstrates a calm professional manner which helped us to feel at ease. Her level of knowledge has proven to be the best in the field and we fully recommend her to anyone seeking to investigate birth injury claims. You can be confident that Susan and her team will scrutinise the medical notes thoroughly and will keep you well informed throughout the process. We are very pleased with the outcome of our child’s case and know that her work has resulted in justice being achieved. Our family will now be able to move forward in the knowledge that the finances are securely in place for our child to receive a suitable care package, purchase equipment and receive necessary lifelong therapy. We cannot thank Susan and her team at Boyes Turner enough.

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I would like to say a huge thank you to Fran Rothwell for the exceptional work that she has carried out on my behalf. She is knowledgeable, efficient and has great attention to detail.Fran has kept me informed throughout the entire process and has been a great support to me, always being at the end of the phone, or on an email, whenever I needed her. She truly wants the best for her client and is passionate about getting justice. Fran also has a kind and compassionate nature and takes her time to explain what is going on in a clear and simple way. This has been extremely helpful to me during a difficult time.It is certainly reassuring having such strong women behind me.

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From a speculative inquiry to a life changing award, the journey with Julie Marsh was interesting. Julie kept me informed along the way explaining exactly what was going on and more importantly why. The team that was assembled certainly knew their stuff which meant I got all the necessary support to keep going. Thank you all. 

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Boyes Turner staff were always helpful and quick to respond. Communicating from the other side of the world presented no problems. Boyes Turner secured generous early interim payments that allowed me to continue my (non-funded) medical treatment that otherwise I could never have afforded. My Boyes Turner solicitor successfully negotiated a full and fair compensation and continuation of funding for future medical treatment and associated costs giving me great peace of mind. Thank you so much Annabelle! I would recommend Boyes Turner solicitors. They are professional, courteous and helpful.